Informational

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Figure 1. H. pseudococcina parasitizing on adult PPMB

1. Parasitoids
Encyrtid Parasitoid, Hambletonia pseudococcina (Compere)
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Encyrtidae
Description: A very small parasitoid with clubbed-like antennae that can be parasitized up to 8 adult PPMBs

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Figure 2. A) Nymphal and (B) adult stages of predatory earwig

2. Predators

  1. Predatory black earwig, Chelisoches morio
    Order: Dermaptera
    Family: Chelisochidae
    Description: Has four nymphal instars that can reach up to 120 days prior from hatching to mortality and can consume 1-2 adult PPMB and up to 100 individuals of PPMB crawlers per day
    Crypto.png

    Figure 3. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri feeding on adult PPMB

  2. Predatory coccinellid beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri
    Order: Coleoptera
    Family: Coccinellidae
    Description: A voracious predator with a long history in biological control against mealybugs that could potentially consume up to 20 individuals of PPMB crawlers and 1 PPMB adult per day.

 

3. Entomopathogenic Fungi (EPF)
EPFs are microorganisms that specifically infect and often kills insects and other arthropods. EPFs are eco-friendly and good substitute for chemicals
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Three (3) isolates of EPFs against PPMB:
• Metarrhizium anisopliae (fig.4)
• Lecanicillum lecanii (fig.5)
• Beauveria bassiana (fig.6) 

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4. Botanical Insecticides
Botanical insecticides are naturally occurring chemicals extracted from plants or minerals to control or minimize insect pest population.

Botanical insecticides against PPMB includes:
• Jatropa curcas (fig.13) 
• Murraya koenigii (fig.14) 
• Spagneticola trilobata (fig.15) 

Parasitic Nematodes.pngPlant-parasitic nematodes are pests of agricultural crops and cause crop yield reduce when the roots are damaged. Pineapple is extremely sensitive to root feeding nematodes. Four genera of plant parasitic nematodes were found to be associated with Queen pineapple such as Rotylenchulus reniformis, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Xiphinema sp. and Helicotylenchus sp. as soil samples were collected and isolated.

 

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Figure 1. Queen Pineapple fruit infested with PPMB

Description
  • Pink pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes Cockerell (PPMB), is one of the major pests of pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill].
  • Belongs to Family Pseudococcidae and described as cottony, small, oval and soft-bodied sucking insect (Joy, et al., 2013).
  • Feeds on the fruits, roots, stem, and leaves of the plant (Ceniza et al, 2018)
  • Dispersed by ants (Joy et, 2013) because PPMB secreteS sweet and sticky liquid called honeydew as a by-product of its feeding (Rohrbach and Johnson, 2003).
  • Distribution: Baybay City, Javier, Ormoc City, Villaba in Leyte; Silago in Southern Leyte; San Lorenzo in Camarines Norte (QP Project 4)

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Figure 1. A) Queen pineapple with Heart rot disease and B) Phytophthora cinnamomi under a microscope (100x)

A. Heart rot and root rot
• Causal Organism: Phytophthora cinnamomi
• Symptoms: soft rotting of the basal white tissues of the youngest leaves at the heart of the apical meristem; necrosis (Green and Nelson, 2015; Ceniza et al, 2018)
• Economic Importance: most destructive soil-borne pathogen with 20-30% prevalence (Shen et al., 2013)
• Distribution: As surveyed, it was observed in Ormoc City, Leyte and Silago, Southern Leyte

a. Management Options: Integration of regulatory, cultural, chemical, and biological practices (Green and Nelson, 2015); Use of antagonists Trichoderma and Penicillium sp. (Oclarit, 2018)

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Figure 2. A) Queen pineapple leaves with anthracnose disease, B) Colletotrichum gloeosporioides under microscope (100x)

B. Anthracnose
• Causal Organism: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
• Symptoms: dark, water-soaked lesions on leaves (Kumar, 2014; Ceniza et al, 2018)
• Economic importance: wide host range: coconut, mango, banana, avocado, papaya, etc. (Nelson 2008)
• Distribution: As surveyed, it was observed in Baybay City, Javier, Leyte, and Silago, Southern Leyte

a. Management Options: Carry out regular weeding and timely pruning of the infected plant parts; Plant resistant varieties (Waller, 1992); use of wood vinegar (Torres, 2018); use of plant extracts (Payot, 2018)

Leaf Blotch.pngFigure 3. A) Queen pineapple leaves with leaf blotch, B) Pestalotia sp. under a microscope (100x)

C. Leaf Blotch
• Causal Organism: Pestalotia
• Symptoms: chlorotic, water-soaked flecksthat enlarge to become dry, yellow, then red-brown, blocky to oval lesions (IPCM, 2013; Alegre et al, 2018)
• Economic Importance: Affects photosynthesis of the plant (Alegre et al, 2018)
• Distribution: It was observed pineapple fields in the Municipality of Basud and San Vicente, Camarines Norte (Alegre et al, 2018)

a. Management Options: Crop rotation, proper crop debris management, and fungicide treatments (IPCM, 2013)

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Figure 4. A) Queen Pineapple with blight disease; B) Fusarium sp. under microscope (400x)

D. QP Blight
• Causal Organism: Fusarium
• Symptoms: Drying of leaves, noticeable loss of vigor and severe injury to the vascular level (Alegre et al, 2018)
• Economic Importance: Death of plants (Alegre et al, 2018)
• Distribution: It was observed in San Lorenzo Ruiz, San Vicente, Basud, Bibirao and Calasgasan, Camarines Norte (Alegre et al, 2018)

a. Management Options: Crop rotation, proper crop debris management, and fungicide treatments (IPCM, 2013)

Leaf Spot.pngFigure 5. A) Queen pineapple with leaf spot; B) Curvularia sp. under a microscope (100x)

E. QP Leaf Spot
• Causal Organism: Curvularia
• Symptoms: Yellow, brown lesions which eventually turns dark on QP leaves (Alegre et al, 2018)
• Economic Importance: Affects photosynthesis of the plant if severe could result to death of plant (Alegre et al, 2018)
• Distribution: It was observed in San Lorenzo Ruiz, San Vicente, Basud, Bibirao and Calasgasan, Camarines Norte (Alegre et al, 2018)

a. Management Options: Crop rotation, proper crop debris management, and fungicide treatments (IPCM, 2013)

 

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